Food Nutrition Facts - Nutrient Data Charts
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Vitamins From The Food You Eat
Biotin: Function Coenzyme in synthesis of fat, glycogen and amino acids. Some Food Sources Liver, smaller amounts in meats and fruits. Adverse Effects: No adverse effects were found from high intakes, but caution still advised because data is limited. Considerations: none";
Choline: function: Precursor for acetylcholine, phospholipids and betaine. Selected Food Sources Milk, Liver, eggs, peanuts Adverse Effects: Fishy body odor, sweating, salivation, hypotension, hepatotoxicity. Considerations: Individuals with Trimethylaminuria, renal disease, depression and Parkinsons Disease may be adversely affected at the UL.
Folate aka Folic Acid and Folacin Pteroylpoly-glutamates: function: Coenzyme in the metabolism of nucleic and amino acids. Prevents megaloblastic anemia. Selected Food Sources Dark, Leafy Vegetables; grains; whole-grain breads. Adverse Effects: Masks neurological complications in people with vitamin B-12 deficiency. No adverse affects reprted, but the data is limited. UL applies to synthetic forms like supplements and fortified foods. Considerations: special considerations for pregnant women.
Niacin: function: Required for energy metabolism. A coenzyme or cosubstrate in many biological reduction and oxidation reactions. Selected Food Sources Meat, fish, poultry, wholegrain breads and fortified foods. Adverse Effects: None from naturally occuring niacin in foods. Supplements and fortified sources may include flushing and gastrointestinal distress. UL for Supplements and fortified sources. Considerations: Extra niacin may be required by persons treated with hemodialysis or peritonial dialysis or malabsorption syndrome.
Pantothenic Acid: function: Coenzyme in fatty acid metabolism. Selected Food Sources Potatos, oats, tomato, broccoli, whole grains, chicken, beef, cereals, liver, kidney. Adverse Effects: No adverse affects, but data limited. Considerations: none";
Riboflavin aka Vitamin B-2: function: A conenzyme in numerous redux reactions. Selected Food Sources Organ meats, milk, bread products and fortified cereals. Adverse Effects: No adverse affects reported, but data limited. Considerations: None.
Thiamine aka Vitamin B-1 and Aneurin: Function A coenzyme in metabolism of Carbohydrates and branched amino acids. Selected Food Sources Whole grains also enriched and fortified grain products. Adverse Effects: No adverse affects reported, but data limited. Considerations: extra thiamine may be needed by persons treated with hemodialysis or peritonial dialysis or malabsorption syndrome.
Vitamin A: Function: Required for normal vision, gene expression, reduction, embryonic development and immune function.Selected Food Sources Dark-colored fruits and leafy vegetables, fish, liver and dairy products. Adverse Effects: Preformed Vitamin A only: teratological effects, liver toxicity. Considerations: People with liver disease, hyperlipodemia.
Vitamin B6: comprises a group of six related compounds: 1. pyridoxal, 2. pyridoxine, 3. pyradoxamine, 4. 5pr-phosphates (PLP, PNP, PMP). Function: Coenzyme to metabolize amino acids, glycogen and sphingoid bases. Adverse Effects: No adverse affects reported, but data limited. Sensory neuropathy has occured from high intakes in Supplement form. Considerations: none.
Vitamin B12 aka Cobalamin: Function: Prevents megabolastic anemia. Coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism. Selected Food Sources meat, fish, poultry. Adverse Effects: No adverse affects reported from food and/or supplements, but data limited. Considerations: 10%-30% of older adults may malabsorb Vitamin B12 from food, so supplementing may be necessary.
Vitamin C aka Absorbic Acid and Dehydroascorbic Acid: Function: Protective antioxidant. Cofactor for reactions requiring reduced copper or iron metalloenzyme. Selected Food Sources Citrus fruits, tomatoes, tomato juice, potatos, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, strawberries, cabbage and spinach. Adverse Effects: Gastrointestnal disturbances, kidney stones, excess iron absorption. Considerations: Smokers urged to meet the RDA for vitamin C.
Vitamin D aka Calciferol: Note: 1 mcg Calciferol = 40 IU Vitamin D. DRI values are based on minimul sun exposure: Function: Maintains serum calcium and phosphorus for bone health. Selected Food Sources fish liver oils egg yolk and fortified foods. Adverse Effects: hypercalcemia, renal problems, hypercalciuria, kidney, cardiovascular and calcification of soft tissue. Considerations: none.
Vitamin E aka Alpha Tocopherol: Function: Chain-breaking antioxidant. a metabolic function has not yet been determined. Selected Food Sources vegetable oils, grains, fruit, nuts, unprocessed cereals, meats. Adverse Effects: none from foods. Hemorrhagic toxicity may result from supplementing or fortified foods and applies to any form of Alpha-Tocopherol. Considerations: Patients on anticoagulant therapy should be monitored when supplementing.
Vitamin K: Function: Coenzyme during the synthesis of many proteins involved in blood clotting and bone metabolism. Selected Food Sources Green vegetables (collards, spinach salad greens, broccoli), brussel sprouts, cabbage, plant oils, margarine. Considerations: Patients on anticoagulant therapy should be monitored when supplementing.
Carbohydrate: Total Digestible
Function: The RDA is based on its role as the primary energy source for the brain. The AMDR is based on its role as a source of Calories (kcal) while maintaining body weight.
Selected Food Sources Starch and sugar. Natural sugars are found in fruit and fruit juices. Vegetables (Corn, rice, potatos, pasta) are sources of starch. Sources of added sugar are juices, soft drinks, candy and desserts.
Adverse Effects: While there was no defined intake level at which potential adverse effects of total digestible carbohydrate was identified, the upper end of the Adequate Macronutrient Distribution Range was based on decreasing risk of chronic disease and also providing adequate intake of other nutrients.
It is suggested that the maximal intake of added sugars be limited to providing no more than 25% of energy.
Function: Improves laxation. Reduces the risk of coranary heart disease. Helps maintain normal blood glucose levels.
Selected Food Sources Dietary fiber found naturally in grains and plants.
Adverse Effects: Although dietary fiber can be found in variable compositions, it is concludede that a high intake of dietary fiber will not produce deleterious effects in healthy individuals. No UL was set for fiber.
Function: Energy Source. A source of Omega-3 and Omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids when found in foods. Helps increase the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and precursers such as vitamin A and pro-vitamin A cartenoids.
Selected Food Sources Seeds and nuts. Vegetable oils, butter and margarine and others.
Adverse Effects: While there was no defined intake level at which potential adverse effects of total fat was identified, the upper end of AMDR is based on decreasing risk of chronic disease and providing adequate intake of other nutrients.
The lower end of the AMDR is based on concerns related to the increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and decreaced HDL cholesterol concentrations seen with low fat (and thus high carbohydrate) diets.
9 Indispensable Amino Acids:
Function: The building blocks of all proteins in the body and some hormones. Among all amino acids, these 9 amino acids
must be provided in the diet and thus are termed indispenable amino acids. The body can make other amino acids needed to synthesize
specific structures from other amino acids and carbohydrate precursers.
Selected Food Sources
α-Linolenic Acid: n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Function: Neurological development and growth. Precurser of eicosanoids.
Selected Food Sources Vegetable oils ie: Soy Bean, Flax Seed oil, Canola. Also fish oils and fish fat.
Adverse Effects: No defined intake level which adverse effects of n-3 fatty Acids were identified. The upper end AMDR was based on maintaining a balance with n-6 fatty acids and in vitro studies that show incresed free radical formation and lipid peroxidation at higher amounts. Lipid peroxidation - a possible component in the development of atherosclerotic plaques.
Linoleic Acid: n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Function: Essential component of structural membrane lipids, involved with cell signaling, precurser of eicosanoids.
Selected Food Sources Nuts, Seeds and vegetable oils such as soybean, safflour oil and corn oil.
Adverse Effects: No defined intake level which adverse effects of n-6 fatty Acids were identified. The upper AMDR based on lack of evidence demonstrating long-term safety and in vitro studies that show incresed free radical formation and lipid peroxidation at higher amounts. Lipid peroxidation - a possible component in the development of atherosclerotic plaques.
Based on 1.5 grams of protein/kilogram of weight for infants each day, 1.1 g/kg for ages 1-3, 0.95 g/kg for ages 4-13, 0.85 g/kg for ages 14-18, 0.8 g/kg for adults and 1.1 grams protein per kg body weight for pregnant and lactating women using pregnacy weight.
Proteins and amino acids:
Function: The major structural component of all cells in the body and function as enzymes in membranes as transport carriers and as some hormones. During digestion and absorption, dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids which become building blocks of these fuctional and structural compounds.
Selected Food Sources Proteins from animal sources adequately provide all nine indispensable amino acids and are termed "complete proteins." Proteins provided by plants may be deficient in one or more indispensable amino acids and are termed "incomplete proteins.", Vegans are encouraged to combine a variety of plant sources.
Adverse Effects: The upper ADMR is established based on complementing the AMDR for carbohydrates and fat for various age groups. The lower end of AMDR is set approximately at the RDA.
Linoleic Acid: n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Selected Food Sources
Function: Maintains homeostasis in the body and allows for transport of nutrients to the cells. Removes waste.
Food Sources All beverages including water, as well as moisture in foods like watermelon, meats, soups etc.
Adverse Effects No UL given. Normal functioning kidneys can handle more than 0.7 liters/hour (24 oz/hr). Hyponatremia and rhabdomyolosis may result from excess water intoxication.
Considerations Moisture in food accounts for about 20% of all hydration.";
Function: No known biological function in humans although data indicates a functional role in animals.
Selected Food Sources Fruit, fruit beverages, potatos, avacados, peanuts, legumes, milk.
Adverse Effects: Reproductive and developmental effects noted in animal studies.
Function: Essential role in blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, bone and tooth formation.
Selected Food Sources Chinese cabbage, kale, broccoli, calcium-set tofu, corn tortillas, milk, cheese, yogurt and fortified foods.
Adverse Effects: Kidney stones, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, prostrate cancer, soft tissue calcification.
Function: Helps maintain normal blood glucose levels.
Selected Food Sources Some cereals, Meats, Fish, poulrty, beer.
Adverse Effects: chronic renal failure.
Function: A component of enzymes in iron metabolism.
Selected Food Sources Organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, wheat bran cereal, whole grain products, cocoa.
Adverse Effects: Gastrointestinal distress, liver damage.
Considerations: Individuals with Wilsons disease, Indian childhood cirrhosis and idiopatic copper toxicosis are at an increased risk of adverse effects from excess copper intake.
Function: Inhibits cavaties and assists bone formation.
Selected Food Sources Fluoridated water and dental products, marine fish, teas.
Adverse Effects: Enamel and skeletal fluorosis.
Function: Component of the thyroid hormones. prevents goiter and cretinism.
Selected Food Sources Marine origin, processed foods, iodized salt.
Adverse Effects: Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration.
Considerations: Persons with autoimmune throid disease, previous thyroid deficiency or nodual goiter are distictly susceptible to adverse effects of excess Iodine intake and may not be protected by the specified UL for Iodine.
Function: Component of hemoglobin and numerous enzymes. prevents microcitic hypochromic anemia.
Selected Food Sources Fruits, vegetable, fortified bread and grain products.
Adverse Effects: Gastrointeninal distress.
Considerations: Vegetarians are suggested to have twice the iron intake as nonvegetarians because non-heme iron absorption is lower for vegetarians. Recommended Intake assumes 75% of iron is from heme sources.
Function: Cofactor for enzyme systems.
Selected Food Sources Green, leafy vegetables; unpolished grains; nuts; starches, meat, milk.
Adverse Effects: No adverse effects taken by food. Effects from supplements may include osmotic diarrhea. The UL is set for Pharmaceutical Supplements and not magnesium taken by food.
Function: Involved in formation of bone, as well as enzymes involved in amino acid, cholsterol and carbohydrate metabolism.
Selected Food Sources Nuts, Legumes, Tea and Whole Grains.
Adverse Effects: Elevated blood concentration and neurotoxicity.
Considerations: Caution should be taken when supplementing manganese, especially for those with liver disease.
Function: Cofactor for enzymes involved in catabolism of sulpher amino acids, purines and pyradines.
Selected Food Sources Legumes, grains and grain products and nuts.
Adverse Effects: Reproductive effects observed in animal studies.
Considerations: Individuals deficient in dietary copper intake or have disfunction in copper metabolism could be at risk of molybdenum toxicity.
Function: No Biological function in humans has been identified. May serve as a cofactor of metalloenzymes and fascillitate iron absorption or metabolism in microorganisms.
Selected Food Sources Nuts, legumes, cereals, sweeteners, chocolate milk powder, chocolate candy.
Adverse Effects: Decreased body weight gain (as observed in animal studies).
Considerations: Individuals with pre-existing nickel hypersensativity from previous dermal exposure and kdney disfunction are distinctly susceptible to adverse effects of excess nickel intake.
Function: Maintenance of PH, storage and transfer of energy and nucleotide synthesis.
Selected Food Sources Milk, yogurt, ice cream, cheese, peas, meat, eggs.
Adverse Effects: Metastatic calcification, skeletal porosity, interference with calcium absorption.
Considerations: Athletes and other high energy expenditure frequently consume amounts of Phosphorus greater than the UL without apparent effect.
Function: Defense against oxidative stress and regulation of thyroid hormone action, and reduction and oxidation status of vitamin C and other molecules.
Selected Food Sources Organ meat, seafood, plants (depending on soil).
Adverse Effects: Hair loss and nail brittleness.
Function: No biological function in humans has been identified. Involved in bone function in animal studies.
Selected Food Sources Plant-based foods.
Adverse Effects: No evidence that naturally occuring silicon in food and water produces any adverse effects.
Function: No biological function in humans has been identified.
Selected Food Sources Mushrooms, shellfish, black peeper, parsley, dill seed.
Adverse Effects: renal lesions observed in animal studies.
Function: Component of multiple enzymes and proteins; involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Selected Food Sources Fortified cereals, red meat, some seafood.
Adverse Effects: Reuced copper status.
Considerations: Zinc absorption is lower for vegetarians. Therefore, it has been suggested that the requirement for vegetarians is roughly double the requirement for nonvegetarians.
Function: Maintains fluid volume outside of cells thus normal cell function.
Selected Food Sources Process Foods to wich sodim chloride (salt) or benzoate or phosphate has been added. Salt is 40% soium by weight.
Adverse Effects: Hypertension, increase risk of cardio-vascular disease and stroke.
Considerations: The AI is set based on being able to obtain a nutritionally adequate diet for other nutrients and to comphensate for sweat losses where individuals are engaged in the recommended levels of activity and is climate dependant. The UL is for healthy individuals without hypertension else the Ul may be too high.
Function: With Sodium maintains fluid volume outside of cells thus normal cell function.
Selected Food Sources Similar to Sodium. About 60% of salt (sodium chloride) by weight.
Adverse Effects: with sodium, hypertension.
Considerations: Chloride is usually lost in sweat with sodium. See sodium.
Function: Maintains fluid volume outside of cells thus normal cell function. Blunts the rise in blood pressure due to excess sodium intake. Decrease recurrence of kidney stones.
Selected Food Sources Fruits, vegetable, nuts, dried peas, meat and dairy products.
Adverse Effects: None documented from food alone. Supplements or salt substitutes can result in hypercalemia and even sudden death if consumed by individuals with chronic renal insufficiency (kidney disease) or diabetes.
Considerations: Individuals taking ACE inhibitors, ARBs or potassium sparing diuretics may need to consume less than the AI for potassium.